Tag: Progress

RPG Development Progress Pulse ‚Äď Entry 2

Progress Pulse

Progress Pulse – Entry 2

Things have been pretty busy in real life the past couple of weeks, so I haven’t had too much time for working on this. However, for this entry in the progress pulse series I’ll talk about some of the challenges I had while looking at making a generic data (de)serialization API + implementation, and why I chose to make some of the decisions I did!

Which Tech To Pick?

I’ve felt burned in the past by trying to do data serialization for my game framework because it’s always created a barrier for refactoring once it’s in place (i.e. i change some data i need and now i have to re-make or migrate allllll my SQL data).

So I was thinking about how I plan to store game state, which I have written about, and then considered the implementations I had considered for persistent storage. One of them was a graph database called Neo4j, which has a JSON representation of all of its node data. Except… I’m not ready to commit to Neo4j just yet because I don’t want to feel tied down (like I used to tie myself down to SQLite). But my objects I’m creating *are* well suited to hierarchies of entities+components, so maybe JSON is a happy medium?

Here was my breakdown for starting with JSON:

Pros:

  • Very easy to get started with
  • (De)Serialization libraries available via nuget for free
  • Human readable which is great for creating, editing, and debugging
  • Hierarchical, which lends itself well to my data structures in memory
    • Should make refactoring easy (did a component change? only change that component’s data representation)
  • Could be a stepping stone for working with Neo4j in the future

Cons:

  • Writing is probably slow, especially if I want to just modify one chunk of JSON data
    • Likely will need to write whole JSON blobs out… But who knows if it’s slow, I need to benchmark it.
  • I suspect lookups would be slow
    • But… Maybe important data is cached in memory on startup? Maybe it’s not even an issue. Benchmark it.

Basically, I was left with a bunch of pros and a couple of cons that were really just speculation. Seemed like a great way to get started!

Lesson learned was to start with something that won’t keep you locked in, but is also just enough to get you going!

Start With Something Specific

I’m a sucker for trying to make really generic things in software. It’s an extreme I find myself taking because I want to make things as extensible and re-usable as possible. The side effect of it though is that sometimes I miss corner cases (and they end up being not corner cases in the general sense) or that I make APIs that suck to use because they’re so general and maybe they shouldn’t be.

I decided I was going to switch up my approach. I wanted to figure out how I could serialize and deserialize my item definition data. That probably warrants a brief explanation:

I want items (i.e. loot) in the game to be part of a system that can control generation of them based on game state, randomness, and pre-defined organization of loot. Some drops might be totally random common items. Others might be based on quest state and need to be very specific. Maybe there’s some that only drop at a specific time of day during specific whether after killing a certain enemy. This is what I’m shooting for. So the item definitions will contain information about how to generate a base item, and provide components that tell the game how to mutate that base item (i.e. set damage to a value between 5 and 10 and call it “Axe”). But there are drop tables that have weights associated with them that can link to specific items or other drop tables. This allows the game’s content creator to generate loot that’s like “When the player is in the swamp lands, common enemies drop between 1-3 items, with a 60% chance of those items being junk, 20% chance of those items being normal equipment, 15% chance of those items being magic equipment, and 5% chance of those items being powerful legendary equipment”. Drop tables are essentially nodes with weights on the vertices that point to other tables or specific item definitions. Simple ūüôā

The reason I went with this approach is because I felt that even though some of the C# types I have might be specific to item definitions, the abstract structure of the types (i.e. entities with components on them) is shared across many different game systems. So if I can make it work for this one, it shouldn’t be too hard to do for the next.

Lesson learned was try not to repeat all of your history… Learn from it. Experiment with new approaches.

Hello Singletons, My Old Friend

My arch-nemesis Dr Singleton! Actually, way back I’ve written about singletons so I’m not TOTALLY against them, I just think that 99% of the time they aren’t actually what you need. Let’s talk about my little run in with them though.

I started custom writing some APIs for JSON serialization that would use Newtonsoft JSON behind the scenes. Based on the structure of my objects, I figured I was going to have some sort of recursive call system going on where children would have to tell their children to serialize, etc… Once I got this working for a simple case, I realized that Newtonsoft has custom converters you can set up. These use attributes to mark up interfaces/classes to tell the serialization engine to use particular converters when they encounter a type. (Edit: after writing this I realize that I don’t HAVE to use the attribute… which might make this whole point moot)

The problem with attributes is that I cannot control the instantiation of them. And because I can’t control the instantiation of them, I can’t control the parameters passed in via the constructor. In my particular case, I needed to create a singleton that this attribute class could access and use Autofac to configure the singleton instance. Essentially, I needed to register custom handlers into my singleton instance, and then the attribute class could pull the registrations from the singleton instance.

Ugly pattern? Yes. I’m not familiar with any other ways to pass information or access to objects when I can’t control the initialization of my object though. It’s buried deep down so it’s not like the API usage feels like garbage, but still wasn’t happy with it.

Lesson learned here was sometimes we end up using “bad patterns”, but if they’re limited in scope we can limit their “badness”.


RPG Development Progress Pulse – Entry 1

Progress Pulse

Progress Pulse – Entry 1

For the first entry in the progress pulse series I’ll touch on some things from the past week or so. There’s been a lot of smaller things being churned in the code base, some of them interesting, and others less interesting so I want to highlight a few. As a side note, it’s really cool to see that the layout and architecture is allowing for features to be added pretty easily, so I’ll dive a bit deeper on that. Overall, I’m pretty happy with how things are going.

Unity3D – Don’t Fight It!

I heard from a colleague before that Unity3D does some things you might not like, but don’t try to fight it, just go with it. To me, that’s a challenge. If I’m going to be spending time coding in something I want it to be with an API that I enjoy. I don’t want to spend time fighting it. An example of this is how I played with the stitching pattern to make my Autofac life easier with Unity3D behaviours.

However, I met my match recently. At work, we were doing an internal hackathon where we could work on projects of our choosing over a 24 hour period, and they didn’t have to be related to work at all. It’s a great way to collaborate with your peers and learn new things. I worked on Macerus and ProjectXyz. I was reaching a point where I had enough small seemingly corner-case bugs switching scenes and resetting things that I decided it was dragging my productivity down. It wasn’t exciting work, but I had to do something about it.

After debugging some console logs (I still have to figure out how to get visual studio properly attached for debugging… Maybe I’ll write an article on that when I figure it out?) I noticed I had a scenario that could only happen if one of my objects was running some work at the same time… as itself? Which shouldn’t happen. Basically, I had caught a scenario where my asynchronous code was running two instances of worker threads and it was a scenario in my game that should never occur.

I tried putting in task cancellation and waiting into my unity game. I managed to hang the main thread on scene switching and application close. No dice. I spent a few hours trying to play around with a paradigm here where I could make my ProjectXyz game engine object run asynchronously within Unity and not be a huge headache.

I needed to stop fighting it though. There was an easier solution.

I could make a synchronous and asynchronous API to my game engine. If you have a game where you want the engine on a thread, call it Async(). Unity3D already has its own game engine loop. Why re-invent it? So in Unity3D, I can simply just call the synchronous version of the game engine’s API. With this little switch, suddenly I fixed about 3 or 4 bugs. I had to stop fighting the synchronous pattern with my asynchronous code.

The lesson? Sometimes you can just come up with a simple solution that’s an alternative instead of hammering away trying to fix a problem you created yourself.

DevOps – Build & Copy Dependencies

This one for me has been one of my biggest nightmares so far.

The structure of my current game setup is as follows:

  • ProjectXyz.sln: The solution that contains all of my back-end shared game framework code. This is the really generic stuff I’m trying to build up so that I can build other games with generic pieces if I wanted to.
  • Macerus.sln: The game-specific business logic for my RPG built using ProjectXyz as a dependency. Strictly business logic though.
  • Macerus Unity: The project that Unity3D creates. This contains presentation layer code built on Macerus.sln outputs and ProjectXyz.sln outputs.

I currently don’t have my builds set up to create nuget packages. This would probably be an awesome route to go, but I also think it might result in a ton of churn right now too as the different pieces are constantly seeing churn. It’s probably something I’ll revisit as things harden, but for now it seems like too much effort given the trade off.

So what have I been doing?

  • I build ProjectXyz.sln.
    • The outputs go into this solution’s bin folder
  • I build Macerus.sln
    • There’s a prebuild step that copies ProjectXyz dependencies over
    • The outputs go into this solutions bin folder
  • I use a custom in-editor menu to copy dependencies into my Unity project
    • This resets my current “dependencies” asset folder
    • The build outputs form the other solutions are copied over
  • I can run the project with new code!

This is a little tedious, sure. But it hasn’t been awful. The problem? Visual studio can only seem to clean what it has knowledge about.

I’ve been refactoring and renaming assemblies to better fit the structure I want. A side note worth mentioning is that MUCH of my code is pluggable… The framework is very light and most things are injected via Autofac from enumerating plugin modules. One of the side effects is that downstream dependencies of ProjectXyz.sln (i.e. Macerus.sln) have build outputs that include some of the old DLLs prior to the rename. And now… Visual Studio doesn’t seem to want to clean then up on build. So what happens?

Unity3D starts automatically referencing these orphaned dlls and the auto-plugin loading is having some crazy behaviour. I’ve been seeing APIs show up that haven’t existed for weeks because some stale DLL is now showing up after an update to the dependencies. This kind of thing was chewing up HOURS of my debugging time. Not going to fly.

I decided to expand my menu a bit more. I now call MSBuild.exe on my dependency solutions prior to copying over dependencies. This removes two completely manual steps from the process I also purged my local bin directories. Now when I encounter this problem of orphaned DLLs, my single click to update all my content can let me churn iterations faster, and shorten my debugging time. Unfortunately still not an ultimate solution to the orphaned dependencies lingering around, but it’s better.

The lesson learned here was that sometimes you don’t need THE solution to your problem, but if you can make temporarily fixing it or troubleshooting it easier then it might be good enough to move forward for now.


RPG Development Progress Pulse

Progress Pulse Series

I figured this would be a fun thing to start to do just to get small updates out and talk about what I’ve been working on for ProjectXyz and my RPG I’m building in Unity3D. This will hopefully be some small updates on the order of semi to bi-weekly about what kinds of things are going on when I’m programming for these projects. This could include:

  • How and why I decided to refactor something
  • A new design practice I’m trying
  • Reflecting on why a design decision has(n’t) been working out
  • A new feature that’s interesting
  • etc…

Some of these will be technical and others much less. A bit of progress pulse allows me an outlet to talk about interesting things I’m doing and maybe sheds some light on some areas (game development or just general programming) that you might be interested.

Where Can I Find Entries In This Series?

I’ll try to organize these Progress Pulse entries into a specific category on my blog. Ideally that way you can navigate them pretty easily. You can click the link below and you should get all the entries in this series!

Click Here For Entire Progress Pulse Series


Resolutions: Why Have Them and How to be Successful

Resolutions

What’s Up With Resolutions?

It’s that time of year! You know, where everyone is thinking back on all of the things they wish they had actually accomplished this year and they’re convincing themselves they’ll get it done next year. It’s time to set some New Year’s resolutions!

But what’s up with that? Why does it take people a whole year to reflect on what’s going right or wrong in their life and try to change their direction? Why does it take you a year to realize your diet and exercise regime is something you couldn’t stick to and you’re no better off than you were last year? Why were you still unmotivated in your career doing the same old thing? Why didn’t you get your head in the game for school? Why did you continue to pursue toxic relationships?

Continuous Improvement

Resolutions are all about trying to get better; we’re trying to continuously improve. Often when I talk to people about “agile” software development, all that I really try to drive at is that “continuous improvement”, in my own personal opinion, is really the important part.

So¬†to continuously try to improve, you need to analyze what’s going well and what’s going not so well, set some goals, try things out, and re-evaluate. It’s a nice iterative cycle. It’s kind of like setting mini resolutions for yourself (or in the case of software development, maybe for your team or teams).

The¬†big difference is the amount of time between measuring whether or not your change is having an effect! Waiting an entire year to try and measure your success would be absolute insanity in a fast moving software environment… why haven’t we gotten better at realizing this for our own personal continuous improvement?

Mark Manson

I’ve been reading a ton of Mark Manson material lately because of events going on in my life and the fact that the way he writes really aligns with how I often talk to my close friends. There’s analysis, there’s some humour, but it’s often a bit blunt and to the point. It’s actually a really nice change from many leadership, self help, or similar content where everything almost feels impossibly positive. This just feels like a real person talking to you.

Mark talks about setting goals in this blog post, and it got me motivated to reflect on my own goals and even write this post. In Mark’s post, he talks about our identities being built up by a bunch of habits, and goes on to state that some research shows that often habits only take about 30 days to form. In his opinion, using a whole year to set a goal of changing, adding, or dropping a habit just allows us to procrastinate for the entire year and then ultimately we fail.

His suggestion? Shorten the time frame.

If it takes on average 30 days to make a habit, why not have a “New Month’s Resolution”? Setting resolutions this way should then allow you to establish a new habit and then at the end of the month reflect on whether or not it worked well. You have less time to procrastinate. Your iteration is much shorter. Interesting.

My Own Goals

I figured I’d wrap this up by sharing some of my own goals publicly. I have a few things I’d like to work on coming up for the year, so I’ll outline them briefly:

  • Read more:
    • I’ve definitely dropped the ball on this one. I always had the excuse for myself that I don’t have time to do it. However, I found when I read the most consistently was when I found a decent book that I could read for a few minutes before I fell asleep every night. No pressure to get through it, but the books were there if I felt intrigued or needed to relax my brain a bit.
  • Try¬†meditation:
    • I’ve always associated meditation with being spiritual or religious. Both of these things don’t really mesh well with me, personally. Mark Manson mentioned meditation in his post that I mentioned earlier, and it gave me a different perspective. I know I get stressed easily and I used to have pretty bad anxiety problems. Maybe this is something I could try out?
  • Write more:
    • I used to blog a lot. Between this blog, my fitness blog, and my car blog, I used to write content multiple times per week. It was always a bit of a social media experiment to get a better feel for how internet traffic works and where different types of content get the best visibility, but it also let me express myself. My content production has been almost nothing over the past year, and it’s something I’d like to look at more of.
  • Try public speaking:
    • This was something my HR Director had a chat with me about as a potentially cool opportunity. We were discussing getting more involved with the community and pushing boundaries, and she proposed speaking to students at local colleges or similar. I was turned off by it at first because I don’t like public speaking. But then the more I thought about it, I don’t know what public speaking is because I’ve never really done it. So why not try it?

But those aren’t my resolutions! Those are all just ideas for things I’m interested in improving. So taking some of Manson’s advice, I’m going to take ONE of those things and try to form a habit out of it for a month. Focusing on one thing at a time allows you to really give yourself an opportunity to establish the habit without worrying about too many other things, and ultimately setting yourself up for failure.

My first resolution is going to be to try out meditation. So for the first month, I’m going to try meditating four times per week for about 10 minutes at a time. I should be able to easily do this for two days on Saturday and Sunday where I don’t really have any external commitments, and then during the week I should be able to find at least two days¬†before work where I can give this a shot.

Small steps, but small steps still take you forward.


How to Refocus: Getting Back in the Groove

How to Refocus: Getting Back in the Groove

Identifying when you need to refocus

It happens to everyone at some point to varying degrees, for various reasons, and at different times in our lives–but it’ll happen! You hit a period or a rut where you can’t keep your focus on continuing to be successful (and I’m over-generalizing that for a good reason).

Maybe this means you can’t focus at work to perform at an optimal level. Maybe you’re falling off the diet you’ve been working hard on. Maybe your training in the gym or for your sport is taking a hit because your head isn’t in the game. Maybe you find yourself unable to hit the books studying or completing your projects in school.

It can look different for everyone.

There are a bunch of different little warning signs that things aren’t quite on track and you need to refocus:

  • You’re losing interest in what you’re working on or have been working towards
  • You can’t seem to keep your mind on the goal(s) that you’ve set
  • You feel like you’re plateauing in your progress toward your goal(s)
  • You’re suddenly finding you’re not happy or not feeling fulfilled
  • You’re taking out stress on your co-workers, friends, or loved ones
  • You’re isolating yourself from friends and family
  • You find yourself overly concerned with things you can’t change (dwelling on the past or fearing a future event, like an exam)

But don’t freak out just yet… you need to see and acknowledge the signs before you can start to make any progress. Feeling pretty good about everything in your life? Then keep doin’ what you’re doin’! If any of those points seemed to resonate with you, then let’s continue on!

Don’t worry

If you’ve found that you’re in a bit of a rut, it’s important to not worry. You need to remind yourself that you were once on track and you’ll get back on track. You’ve already identified you need to refocus, so you have the power to get back on track.

Worrying about the fact you’ve identified you’re not in an ideal state of mind doesn’t help anything; in fact, it makes it worse.

“I can’t seem to find my focus at work… I’m going to be such a bad employee. I wonder if I can even get my work done now. My colleagues are going to notice… My manager will notice!”

“Training has really been kicking my butt… Why am I even doing this? I wonder if I should just give up. I haven’t seen any progress in my abilities in the past couple of weeks. I’m hopeless at this.”

“There’s a lot going on at school now and I can’t seem to keep up anymore. I’m going to fail this project that’s due next week because I can’t seem to get started on it. And my exams are coming up and I can’t seem to study. I’m going to fail this term.”

All of that kind of talk is negative and it’s not going to help you progress! So why are you continuing to focus on hampering your progress? Don’t do it. Instead, acknowledge you’re looking for a positive change, and then¬†acknowledge that you’re in full control to start making that change.

And step one is to stop worrying and drop the negativity.

Analyze what’s getting you down

I get told that the engineer in me talks too much about analysis… but I think it’s a critical step! You need to understand the things that are getting you down.¬†You’ve identified that you need to refocus because you’re not happy with your current behaviour or state of mind, but what are those things that are getting you down?

If you understand what’s getting you down you can start to take corrective actions. It’s got a (cue the fancy buzzword) synergistic effect with my previous point–Drop the negative thoughts and work on correcting them in parallel.

Let’s look at a couple of potential examples:

  • You’re unable to see any progress in your work, schooling, or training
    • How are you measuring progress right now?
      • Some things aren’t well suited for quantitative measurement
      • Try and identify a consistent mechanism for measuring progress
    • How often do you measure progress?
      • Some things don’t change very frequently so it’s hard to notice progress
      • Many things don’t progress in a totally linear fashion
    • Is it time to update your strategy for continuing success?
      • How long have you been doing the exact same thing expecting to get the same increase in results?
      • Have other environmental factors changed that suggest you should update what you’re doing?
    • Have you actually compared your current status to a previous point in time, or is it just how you feel?
      • Maybe it’s all in your head!
      • Try reflecting on where you were a month ago, 6 months ago, and a year ago.
  • You’re¬†constantly comparing yourself to others
    • Do you actually know all the ins and outs of a person’s life?
      • Just because you observe certain things, it doesn’t mean they’re exactly as they seem
      • If you don’t have the full perspective and details on someone’s life, you’re guaranteed to be misunderstanding something
    • Can you change other people?
      • … Even if you could, you shouldn’t!
      • See the next major point ūüôā
    • Are you comparing different subsets of your lives and expecting them to align a certain way?
      • Other people are not you and are living a different life
      • You can only truly compare yourself to your own self at various parts in your life
  • You’re dwelling on things you can’t change
    • Are you expecting to change something in the past that’s already happened?
      • Unless you have a time machine, you absolutely cannot change past events
      • Trying to understand past events can be helpful learning for the future
    • Are you dreading an event in the future that’s unavoidable?
      • If you can’t avoid it, then work at accepting it’s going to happen. (Things like exams or year-end reviews for work, for example)
      • Ask yourself why you’re dreading it. Try applying this example of analysis to THAT reason and dive deeper.
    • Are you focused on the thoughts and emotions of other people?
      • You can’t (and shouldn’t try to) control how other people think and feel
      • The best you can do is focus on yourself and live the values that you believe in
      • When it comes to thoughts and feelings, we all observe and interpret on our own
    • Have you considered whether this situation is temporary?
      • When you don’t know how long you’ll be out of control, it can make you feel helpless
      • Knowing there’s a point in time where there’s a change that can affect your situation can be a great help (i.e. money is tight for two weeks and you just need that next pay cheque to come through)

These are just a handful of examples, but hopefully you can see a pattern:

  1. Identify a particular thing that you know is getting you down.
  2. Ask yourself what effects it’s having and why you believe it’s having those¬†effects on you.
  3. Dive deeper on each one of those by repeating these steps.

It’s nothing groundbreaking and I’m not claiming it will magically fix your problems… But analyzing things can lead to understanding, and understanding can lead to progress.

Remind yourself of your strengths

Everyone gets down on themselves at some point and this will cause you to lose focus on your goals. But I guarantee you if you stop and think about it, there’s a lot of great things that you got going on!

Don’t believe me? I challenge you to take a pen and something you can write on.

  • Write¬†three things you’re proud of or that you’ve accomplished
  • Write three things about why your best friends like you
  • Write down the thing you love doing most or loved doing most before this point in time
  • Write down the thing you think you’re best at

Now step back for a second and think about the things you wrote.

  • It’s very likely the accomplishments you made or things you’re proud of required you to overcome something. Unless you got lucky or had some magic, odds are you used your strengths to achieve these things.
  • Your friends stay by your side because they admire you. They admire the qualities you have and see strength in you. You might not realize these strengths, but your friends perceive these about you.
  • If you love doing something, you’re probably pretty good at it, and if you’re not, odds are you’ll get good at it because you love to do it!¬†Acknowledge and understand what you’re passionate about because it will tell you about your strengths.
  • Sometimes you’re good at things that you’re not totally passionate about. That’s cool too! What makes you good at this thing? Can you apply this to other areas in your life?

Set some goals

At this point you’ve:

  • Identified that you’re not content with your current state
  • Reminded yourself¬†that you¬†can make a change
  • Analyzed what’s getting you down so that you have a better understanding of some direction to take
  • Reflected on your own personal strengths

And now… It’s time to set some goals!

Goals you set should ideally align with SMART goals. Do yourself a favour and check that page out for a little bit more information so you can set yourself up for success. You want to make sure you’ve agreed your goal is achievable within a certain period of time and that you can measure progress in some way as you go. This is critical for a few reasons:

  • No time box? How will you know if you’re on track?
  • No way to measure? … Same problem!
  • Not realistic or achievable? You’re setting yourself up for failure.

It seems obvious when it’s laid out like that, but this will keep you from setting goals like “I’m going to do better at work”, “I’ll kick¬†my training up a notch”, or “I’ll¬†worry less about what’s going on in other peoples’ lives”. None of those goal statements indicate when you’ll be done by or how you’re going to measure progress.

Here’s¬†a simple example:

In the next month, instead of missing on average three¬†practices per week, I’ll reduce this to one. I’ll make sure that I have things put into my agenda ahead of time so I won’t schedule things over practice sessions, and if something critical comes up last minute, I can use the following week to compensate for it.

  • Specifically about not missing practices
  • Measured weekly by an average of missed practices
  • Achievable because it’s an improvement and not an expectation of perfection
  • Realistic and with the reward of getting to more practices
  • Time boxed to one month.

Start slow and set one or two SMART goals. As you build confidence that you’re progressing in your goals, try adding in another. You don’t want to overwhelm yourself!

Be brave enough to ask for help

If you’re reading this and you’re considering making changes then you’re already starting your path to progress. That’s AWESOME and you’re a strong person for being able to get started.

Sometimes things can get tough though. You might feel you’ve made progress over a few weeks or months and seemingly fall back to square one. You might feel like you’ve set SMART goals but you’re having trouble even getting started. Maybe you read this and still don’t even know how to get started.

There are a million reasons why getting started or continuing can be hard. Be brave though. Ask for help. I can guarantee you have some amazing¬†friends and¬†family that love you that¬†want to see you be successful. There’s nothing to be ashamed of when asking for help! It’s a courageous thing to admit that you’d like assistance on your path for doing better, and people see that. You might feel embarrassed or ashamed, but other people see a brave person trying to move forward.

Summary

It’s a common thing for people to fall into a figurative rut in life. It happens to everyone at some point and it’s nothing to get down on yourself about. You’re not a bad human being if it happens to you, so don’t sweat it.

Analyzing your current situation and why you feel certain ways can help you gain an understanding of what’s going on. Focus on driving out the negativity and create actions to try making progress by leveraging your strengths.

In the end, remember that you control your life and you can make all the positive changes to it that you want to see. It¬†takes time and hard work, but if you put in the effort, you’ll always get to where you want to be.

Now get out there and go kick some ass.


  • Subscribe to Blog via Email

    Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

  • Nick Cosentino

    Nick Cosentino

    I work as a team lead of software engineering at Magnet Forensics (http://www.magnetforensics.com). I'm into powerlifting, bodybuilding, and blogging about leadership/development topics over at http://www.devleader.ca.

    Verified Services

    View Full Profile →

  • Copyright © 1996-2010 Dev Leader. All rights reserved.
    Jarrah theme by Templates Next | Powered by WordPress